An operator is a symbol that tells the Computer to perform certain mathematical or logical manipulations.


Expression :

An expression is a sequence of operands and operators that reduces to single value.
Eg: 10+25 is an expression whose value is 35 C . operators can be classified into a no. of categories.

  1. Arithmetic
  2. Relational
  3. Logical
  4. Assignment
  5. Increment and Decrement
  6. Conditional
  7. Bitwise
  8. Special

Arithmetic Operators :

C provides all the basic arithmetic operators, they are +, -, *, /, % Integer division truncates any fractional part. The modulo division produces the remainder of an integer division.

Example:
a + b a * b a / b
a - b -a * b a % b

Here "a"and "b" are variables and are known as operands. % cannot be used for floating point data. C does not have an operator for exponentiation.


Integer Arithmetic :

When the operands in an expression are integers then the expression is an integer expression and the operation is called integer arithmetic. This always yields an integer value.


Real Arithmetic / Floating Point Arithmetic :

Floating Point Arithmetic involves only real operands of decimal or exponential notation. If x, y & z are floats, then

x = 6.0/7.0 = 0.857143
y = -1.0/3.0 = 0.333333
z = 3.0/2.0 = 1.500000
% cannot be used with real operands


Relational Operator :

These are the operators used to Compare arithmetic, logical and character expressions. the value of a relational express is either one or zero .it is 1 if one is the specified relation is true and zero if it is false.


The relational operators in C are

Operator and Meaning

< is less than
< = is less than or equal to
> is greater than or equal to
> = is greater than or equal to
= = is equal to
! = is not equal to

illustrate the use of Logical Operators

void main ( )
 { 
 clrscr ( );
 printf("In 5>3 && 5<10 : %3d", 5>3&&5<10);
 printf("In 8<5 || 5= =5 : % 3d", 8<5 || 5= =5);
 printf("In !(8 = =8) : %3d", !(8= =8) ;
 }

Logical operator :

Logical Operators are used when we want to test more than one condition and make decisions. here the operands can be constants, variables and expressions Logical operators are &&, ||, !.

Logical or compound relational Expression
name1	name2	name1&name2	name1||name2	name	!
1	1	1		1		0	1
1	0	0		1		1	0
0	1	0		1
0	1	0		0

Assignment Operator :

Used to assign the result of an expression to a variable. „= „is the assignment operator. In addition C has a set of „short hand‟ assignment operators

Var Op = Exp :
Variable operator
shorthand assignment
Binary arithmetic operator
var op = exp; is equivalent to var = var op exp;

Example:
x + = 1; == > x = x+1
x+ = y+1 == > x = x+y+1

ShortHand Operator	Assingment Operator
a + = 1			a = a+1
a - = 1			a = a-1
a * = n+1		a = a* (n + 1)
a / = n+1		a = a/(n+1)
a % = b			a = a % b

Increment and Decrement Operators :

++ and - -
The Operator + + adds 1 to the operand while -- subtracts 1, Both are unary operators

 Example : 
 
++ x or x ++	== > x+=1	== > x=x+1 
-- x or x- -	== > x-=1    	== > x=x-1 	

A Profix operator first adds 1 to the operand and then the result is assigned to the variable on left. A postfix operator first assigns the value to the variable on the left and the increments the operand.


Conditional operator :

it is used to check a condition and Select a Value depending on the Value of the condition.
Variable = (condition)? Value 1 : Value 2:
If the Value of the condition is true then Value 1 is e valued assigned to the varable, otherwise Value2.

Example:

big = (a>b)? a:b;
This exxp is equal to if (a>b) big = a;
else
big = b;


Bitwise operator :

are used to perform operations at binary level i. e. bitwise. these operators are used for testing the bits, or Shifting them right or left . These operators are not applicable to float or double. Following are the Bitwise operators with their meanings.

Operator	Meaning

&		Bitwise AND
|		Bitwise OR
^		Bitwise Exclusive – OR
<<		Left Shift
>>		Right Shift
~		Complement

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